Spanish constitution – FAAEE Antrapologia http://faaeeantrapologia.com/ Sat, 19 Nov 2022 22:46:00 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-1-120x120.png Spanish constitution – FAAEE Antrapologia http://faaeeantrapologia.com/ 32 32 TEXAS HISTORY MINUTE: The Navarro Family | Columns https://faaeeantrapologia.com/texas-history-minute-the-navarro-family-columns/ Sat, 19 Nov 2022 12:00:00 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/texas-history-minute-the-navarro-family-columns/ The Navarro family played an important role in Texas’ early formative years. Angel Navarro was one of San Antonio’s first significant political leaders, a service that paved the way for his son. Jose Antonio Navarro, a leader of the Texas Revolution and early Republic of Texas, was inspired by his father for a life of […]]]>

The Navarro family played an important role in Texas’ early formative years. Angel Navarro was one of San Antonio’s first significant political leaders, a service that paved the way for his son. Jose Antonio Navarro, a leader of the Texas Revolution and early Republic of Texas, was inspired by his father for a life of service. He, in turn, would inspire his own children and citizens across the state.

Navarro was born in San Antonio in 1795. He was one of 12 children, only six of whom survived to adulthood. His father, Angel Navarro, was a generous and popular figure in San Antonio. However, he died in 1808 when young Navarro was only 13 years old.

His father’s worldly adventures, his success, his devotion to his family, and the deep respect that the people of San Antonio had for his father had a profound impact on the young Navarro. Angel Navarro was born into a wealthy family in Corsica, just south of France in the Mediterranean Sea. Her mother was a noble and her father was a businessman. But in 1762, at the age of 14, he ran away from home to seek a life of adventure.

After a series of wild escapades between Corsican revolutionaries and seedy ports combined with a series of odd jobs, he makes his way to the New World. He arrived in San Antonio in 1777, where he established his own successful businesses. He was the city’s first elected alcalde in 1790, a post which, according to Spanish law, was a combination of mayor and judge.

Jose Navarro grew up determined to live up to his father’s legacy. He trained to become a lawyer. In 1813, San Antonio was briefly occupied by the forces of the ill-fated Gutierrez-Magee Expedition, a brief effort to wrest Texas from the failing Spanish occupation and annex it to the United States. Navarro supported the revolt, but was forced to flee to the United States for three years after Spanish forces rallied and defeated the expedition.

By the 1820s he had developed a friendship with Stephen F. Austin and began to assist him in his colonization efforts. In the 1830s he was a popular voice for Texas. He first won elections for the state legislature of Coahuila y Texas, and then for the Federal Congress of Mexico. He also served as a land commissioner, helping settlers in the new territory.

He became increasingly critical of Mexico’s policy toward Texas. He openly supported the Texas Revolution when war broke out. In 1836, he signed the Texas Declaration of Independence. He supported the first attempt at annexation to the United States in 1836, but was disappointed when the United States refused for fear of provoking Mexico into war. In 1838, he was elected to Congress from Texas, representing Bexar County. He supported policies aimed at expanding Texas trade opportunities, defending Texas against continued retaliation from Mexico, and defending the rights of Hispanics, who were under increasing assault.

In 1841, he participated in the disastrous Santa Fe Expedition. Texas President Mirabeau Lamar had hoped to exploit trade with New Mexico to expand Texas’ reach. However, New Mexico was deep in Mexican territory. The troops captured Navarro and the caravan. After being imprisoned in Veracruz for over a year, Navarro managed to escape and return to Texas in mid-1843.

Navarro returned to politics and was a delegate to the 1845 state constitutional convention, which completed the first Texas state constitution. After the statehood, he served two terms in the state senate.

In honor of his work for the state, the Texas Legislature named Navarro County after him in 1846. Navarro himself founded the county seat of Corsicana in 1848, named for the his father’s homeland and now a thriving city of nearly 24,000 people.

His four sons served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War, and one son later served in the state legislature, continuing a tradition of public service.

Navarro spent his last years writing and ranching near Seguin. The site has since become a historical monument. He died in San Antonio in January 1871 at the age of 75. On a statue in the Navarro County Courthouse in Corsicana, he is described as a “lover of liberty; Enemy of Despotism” – a fitting epitaph for a man who has dedicated his life to Texas.

Dr. Ken Bridges is a writer, historian and native Texan. He can be reached by email: drkenbridges@gmail.com.

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Spain’s tougher new rape law will be reviewed after it was used to reduce some prison sentences https://faaeeantrapologia.com/spains-tougher-new-rape-law-will-be-reviewed-after-it-was-used-to-reduce-some-prison-sentences/ Wed, 16 Nov 2022 16:44:51 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/spains-tougher-new-rape-law-will-be-reviewed-after-it-was-used-to-reduce-some-prison-sentences/ Spain is to review a new law to better protect victims of sexual offenses after a series of court rulings led to reduced prison sentences for offenders due to a loophole in the legislation. The law came into effect last month, six years after what became known as the ‘Wolf Pack’ case in which five […]]]>

Spain is to review a new law to better protect victims of sexual offenses after a series of court rulings led to reduced prison sentences for offenders due to a loophole in the legislation.

The law came into effect last month, six years after what became known as the ‘Wolf Pack’ case in which five men raped an 18-year-old woman at Pamplona’s bullfighting festival, but first were given a lesser sentence. for the crime of sexual abuse.

The case sparked protests across Spain and led the government to change the criminal law on sexual offences.

Known as the ‘yes means yes’ law, the new legislation qualifies any non-consensual sex as rape, bringing Spain in line with 11 other European countries, including Britain, Sweden and Portugal.

The far-reaching legislation also dealt with sexual offenses against children and punished chat calls to women, and proposed the re-education of offenders.

However, lawyers for convicted sex offenders used a loophole in the law that allowed for a general reduction in prison sentences when new criminal legislation came into force in Spain.

Prison sentence reductions

When the law was drafted, it established minimum and maximum sentences and allowed sex offenders to seek retroactive sentence reduction.

In some cases, this meant that when the maximum sentence was imposed, it could be reduced by defense attorneys citing the new law.

Lawyers for the convicts sought to exploit this loophole in the law.

Before the law was passed, Spain’s General Council of the Judiciary, the governing body of the judiciary, warned that this could happen.

A woman raises her hands outside the Ministry of Justice in Madrid on November 4, 2019. -AP Photo/Paul Blanc

In general, when a new penal law comes into force, the principle is to apply more lenient penalties. Spain is considered to have some of the harshest sentences in Europe.

In the latest case, a man who was sentenced to eight years in prison for sexually abusing his 13-year-old stepdaughter has had his sentence reduced by a Madrid court to six years.

In Barcelona, ​​a 28-year-old man who raped a 60-year-old woman in his own home was sentenced to three years and ten months. The judges ruled that under the new law the sentence should be between two and four years.

Madrid judicial authorities told Euronews there were dozens of other cases in which sentences would be reviewed.

Maria Jesus Montero, Spain’s treasury minister, told the Senate on Tuesday that “after some sentences handed down, I think this issue needs to be investigated…because obviously it was not the purpose of the law that child sentences abuses could be reduced, quite the contrary.

Manuel Cancio Melía, a professor of criminal law at the Autonomous University of Madrid, said that when criminal laws changed in Spain, the idea was to reduce sentences in general, but prison sentences depended on the circumstances of each case. .

“I cannot comment on these cases because we will have to see what happens with this law. There have been reductions but also in some cases increased sentences,” he told Euronews.

“In some cases, sentences could be reduced if judges decide that intimidation or violence was not used.”

The prison sentence reductions have sparked a political row over a law championed by Spain’s leftist government as a way to give victims of sex offenses more protection.

“Misapplication of the law”

Ione Belarra, the leader of the far-left Unidas Podemos party, the junior coalition government partner that introduced the legislation, accused some judges of misinterpreting the legislation.

“Some of the judges in this country have stood in opposition to the coalition and in particular the Department for Equality…they are misapplying the law,” she tweeted.

Javier Maroto, the Senate spokesman for the conservative opposition People’s Party, has called for a review of the law next week in the Senate.

“Spanish people are angry at the reduction of sentences for assaults on women and children. This should never have happened. The criminals are rubbing their hands in joy.

Under previous Spanish sex laws, an attacker had to use physical violence or intimidation for an assault to qualify as rape.

AP Photo/Alvaro Barrientos

Women hold a sign reading ‘No means no’ as people demonstrate in the Plaza del Ayuntamiento square in Pamplona on June 7, 2018 -AP Photo/Alvaro Barrientos

One aspect of the new law classifies stalking or street harassment, or chatting up in a humiliating manner will become felonies instead of misdemeanors.

Gang rape is considered an aggravating circumstance that can lead to sentences of up to 15 years, a measure intended to deter these attacks which have shocked Spain.

The law created a four-hour sexual assault hotline and specialized children’s homes for underage victims.

Spain’s left-wing coalition government has sought to make sexual policy a cornerstone of its policies, but the opposition says this is not feasible.

In the Wolf Pack case, which takes its name from the WhatsApp men’s group, they were initially convicted of sexual abuse because the court found they did not use violence or intimidation and were sentenced to nine years in prison.

The verdict sparked immediate protests across Spain.

In 2019, three years after the initial attack, the Supreme Court overturned the initial verdict and found all five guilty of sexual assault or rape and handed down sentences of up to 15 years.

This was not the only case of gang rape to horrify the Spanish public.

Another case in Sabadell, a town near Barcelona, ​​sparked similar outrage and paved the way for law change.

In 2021, three members of a gang who raped an 18-year-old woman in a disused industrial unit in the Catalan city in 2019 were jailed for between 13 and 31 years.

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Spain’s former king’s ex-lover ‘says intruders left book about Diana’s death’ https://faaeeantrapologia.com/spains-former-kings-ex-lover-says-intruders-left-book-about-dianas-death/ Tue, 08 Nov 2022 15:48:17 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/spains-former-kings-ex-lover-says-intruders-left-book-about-dianas-death/ Receive the free Morning Headlines email for news from our journalists around the world Sign up for our free Morning Headlines email An ex-lover of a former king of Spain has alleged ‘intruders’ left a book about ‘the involvement of British and American intelligence agencies’ in the death of the late Diana, Princess of Wales, […]]]>

An ex-lover of a former king of Spain has alleged ‘intruders’ left a book about ‘the involvement of British and American intelligence agencies’ in the death of the late Diana, Princess of Wales, in his apartment , the appeals judges were told.

Businesswoman Corinna zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, who is filing a lawsuit against Juan Carlos, alleged “an operation” by Spanish intelligence agents in her apartment in Switzerland, a court heard on Tuesday. calling from London.

She also alleged that she received a “follow-up phone call” from an “unknown person” who made an “hint” to how Diana died, a lawyer representing Juan Carlos said.

Juan Carlos, 84, who abdicated in 2014, began appeal proceedings after losing a High Court fight with Ms zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, 57. Ms. zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn files a lawsuit against Juan Carlos, seeking damages for personal injury.

She alleges he caused her “great mental pain” by spying on and harassing her.

Juan Carlos denies wrongdoing and disputes the allegations made against him.

Lawyers representing Juan Carlos had argued that he was “entitled to immunity from the jurisdiction of the English courts as a prominent member of the Spanish Royal Family”.

But a High Court judge disagreed.

Judge Nicklin ruled earlier this year that the claim could go ahead in England.

Three appeal judges – Lady Justice King, Lady Justice Simler and Lord Justice Popplewell – began to consider a challenge by Juan Carlos to some of the findings made by Judge Nicklin, during a hearing at the Court of Appeal in London tuesday.

Lawyer Timothy Otty KC, told judges an allegation Ms zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn made was that papers in her flat in Villars, Switzerland had been disturbed.

He suggested the “inference” was that “this operation” was carried out by “Spanish intelligence agents”.



Her Majesty … categorically denies that he engaged in, or directed, any harassment of the respondent, and he rejects her allegations to the contrary as false and inconsistent with previous public statements made by her

Timothy Otty KC, for Juan Carlos

Mr Otty said details of the complaint alleged an ‘operation’ by Spain’s intelligence agency, the CNI, to ‘enter’ Ms zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn’s apartment in Switzerland to ‘threaten’ her .

“It is alleged that the ‘papers were disturbed in his apartment’ in Villars,” he said in written argument.

“It is alleged that a book was left by the intruders on the subject of the involvement of British and American intelligence agencies in the death of Princess Diana.

“It is further alleged that (Ms zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn) received a telephone call in Switzerland from an unknown Spanish-speaking person who informed her that ‘there are many tunnels between Monaco and Nice’ – this is to say an allusion to how Princess Diana was killed – following a car accident in the Pont de l’Alma tunnel in Paris, which the book left by the intruders had identified as in the hands of the intelligence services.

Mr Otty said Juan Carlos had pointed out that he considered Ms zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn’s legal action to be “vexatious”.

“He categorically denies having committed or directed any harassment of (Ms. zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn) in anything, and he rejects her allegations to the contrary as false and inconsistent with previous public statements made by her.

“The allegations also involve an alleged abuse of power wholly inconsistent with Her Majesty’s important role in Spain’s transition to a successful parliamentary democracy and her long period of service as sovereign.”

Judges have heard that Juan Carlos reigned from 1975 until his abdication in 2014 and the succession of his son, King Felipe VI.

They have been told Ms zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, who lives in England and has a home in Shropshire, wants an ‘injunction and damages’ stemming from an ‘ongoing and continuing campaign of harassment’ against her, “begun” by (Juan Carlos) from 2012, following the “rupture of an intimate romantic relationship” and his “refusal to let (Juan Carlos) use a financial sum which was irrevocably offered to him, or to return ‘other gifts’.

Lawyers representing her alleged to judges that the conduct “includes (the former king) or his agents smearing her and her affairs in the media, following her, entering her home in Shropshire and bugging her homes and businesses. electronic appliances”.

Judge Nicklin rejected the argument that, despite his abdication, Juan Carlos remains a “sovereign” and is entitled to personal immunity under the 1978 State Immunity Act.

He also said that Juan Carlos was not a member of the current king’s household within the meaning of this law.

Judge Nicklin said the former king’s position under the Spanish constitution is “entirely ceremonial” and grants him “no continuing role”.

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The fight between the former king of Spain Juan Carlos and his ex-lover goes before the judges of appeal | world news https://faaeeantrapologia.com/the-fight-between-the-former-king-of-spain-juan-carlos-and-his-ex-lover-goes-before-the-judges-of-appeal-world-news/ Tue, 08 Nov 2022 13:10:21 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/the-fight-between-the-former-king-of-spain-juan-carlos-and-his-ex-lover-goes-before-the-judges-of-appeal-world-news/ The former king of Spain has launched an appeal bid after losing a High Court fight with an ex-lover who accused him of spying on and harassing her. Corinna zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, a Danish businesswoman, has filed a lawsuit against Juan Carlos, who abdicated in 2014, seeking damages for personal injury. Carlos, 84, denies wrongdoing and […]]]>

The former king of Spain has launched an appeal bid after losing a High Court fight with an ex-lover who accused him of spying on and harassing her.

Corinna zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, a Danish businesswoman, has filed a lawsuit against Juan Carlos, who abdicated in 2014, seeking damages for personal injury.

Carlos, 84, denies wrongdoing and disputes the allegations made against him.

Lawyers representing the former monarch argued that he was ‘entitled to immunity from the jurisdiction of the English courts as a prominent member of the Spanish royal family’.

But a High Court judge disagreed.

Judge Nicklin ruled earlier this year that the claim could go ahead in England.

Image:
Juan Carlos at the Queen’s funeral in September

In July, two Court of Appeal judges allowed Juan Carlos to challenge some of Judge Nicklin’s findings.

Three appeal judges, Lady Justice King, Lady Justice Simler and Lord Justice Popplewell, are due to consider detailed arguments at a hearing at the London Court of Appeal.

Lawyers representing Ms zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn argued that the former king’s offer to appeal should be rejected.

The judges heard how Juan Carlos reigned from 1975 until his abdication in June 2014 and the succession of his son King Felipe VI.

They have been told Ms zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, who lives in England and has a home in Shropshire, wants an ‘injunction and damages’ stemming from an ‘ongoing and continuing campaign of harassment’ against her, “begun” by the former king from 2012, following the “breakdown of an intimate romantic relationship” and his “refusal to let (the former king) use a financial sum irrevocably offered to him, or to return other gifts”.

Lawyers representing her alleged to judges that the conduct “includes (the former king) or his agents smearing her and her affairs in the media, following her, entering her home in Shropshire and bugging her homes and businesses. electronic appliances”.

Judge Nicklin rejected the argument that, despite his abdication, Carlos remained a “sovereign” and was entitled to personal immunity under the 1978 State Immunity Act.

He had also declared that Carlos was not a member of the current king’s household within the meaning of this act.

Judge Nicklin said the former king’s position under the Spanish constitution was ‘entirely ceremonial’ and guaranteed him ‘no continuing role’.

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Why is WA rejecting tens of thousands of ballots? Hint: it’s not a cheat https://faaeeantrapologia.com/why-is-wa-rejecting-tens-of-thousands-of-ballots-hint-its-not-a-cheat/ Sat, 05 Nov 2022 14:02:00 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/why-is-wa-rejecting-tens-of-thousands-of-ballots-hint-its-not-a-cheat/ Before it’s official, before the winners bask in glory and the losers shrink in defeat, Washington election officials meticulously examine the lines and swoops of every signature on every ballot sent out by the post from anywhere in the state. If they can’t match those lines and rush to a recorded signature, they flag the […]]]>

Before it’s official, before the winners bask in glory and the losers shrink in defeat, Washington election officials meticulously examine the lines and swoops of every signature on every ballot sent out by the post from anywhere in the state.

If they can’t match those lines and rush to a recorded signature, they flag the ballot for further review, then roll the vote if they can’t confirm the correct person signed it. This process is Washington’s last safeguard against fraud. Over the years, officials have identified only a handful of ballots that may have been fraudulently cast — out of several million votes tallied statewide.

Meanwhile, tens of thousands of otherwise legitimate votes were thrown out in recent elections, not because of suspicions of fraud, but simply because the signatures didn’t match. According to a state auditor’s report released earlier this year, nearly 24,000 votes were thrown out in 2020 due to mismatched signatures, out of more than 4 million voters, disproportionately affecting young voters and voters. voters of color.

“It’s an appalling fact,” said Chad Dunn, legal director of the UCLA Voting Rights Project, a legal advocacy arm of the university’s Latino Policy & Politics Institute.

Dunn is leading a lawsuit against Yakima, Benton and Chelan counties in Washington alleging discrimination against Latino voters, following a 2021 InvestigateWest report showing those voters had above-average ballot rejection rates . The plaintiffs, including the Latino Community Fund of Washington and three citizens, are calling on counties to implement best practices to reduce bias.

Proponents of mail-in voting say it is easy, safe and accessible, increasing turnout wherever it is adopted. But Washington’s signature-matching process rejects mail-in ballots at a rate more than twice the national average, according to an analysis by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Kevin Hamilton, a longtime Seattle-based election lawyer, suggests it’s not a system that can be fixed. He represented Christine Gregoire in the 2004 Washington gubernatorial race and Al Franken in the 2008 Minnesota contest for the US Senate.

Both won by a few hundred votes. Hamilton has seen firsthand how rejected ballots can influence an election.

In his experience, the majority of ballots reported for signature discrepancies are genuine. The very small fraud that is detected, Hamilton said, is not worth wrongfully stripping tens of thousands of people of their right to vote. “I think that’s way too high a price,” he said.

Which votes are rejected?

People sign their names for all kinds of things in all kinds of places. Invoices, leases and contracts, to name a few. Maybe they will write every letter of their name. Maybe they’ll scribble something vaguely resembling letters. Maybe they’ll dot their i’s with a heart or a star.

These signatures are rarely examined. Except when a person votes in a state like Washington which has all elections by mail.

“Signature is one of the main tools for us to be able to validate this…the person who signed, returned and completed this ballot is who they claim to be,” said Stuart Holmes, acting chief electoral officer for the Secretary of State’s Office.

Compared to the total number of votes cast, the rate of rejected ballots is relatively low. For example, in 2020, Washington election officials rejected less than 1%. However, nearly 24,000 votes were erased due to signature incompatibilities.

Rejection rates varied from county to county, according to the auditor’s report released in February. Franklin County rejected the most, rejecting 1.5% of ballots, and Columbia County rejected the least, just 0.04%.

Young voters were almost three times more likely to have their ballot rejected than older voters in Washington. And ballots cast by new voters were five times more likely to be challenged than those cast by people who had already voted. Black voters (2.49%) were contested at four times the rate of white voters (0.63%).

In King County, non-English speakers were more likely to have their ballots rejected, despite translation of election materials into Spanish, Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese. (In September, the King County Elections Office made budget requests to add Somali and Russian to this list.)

Sometimes simple changes can lead to dramatic improvements. In Oregon, officials ensured that voters did not have to physically travel to an election office to process their ballot. They can simply post a signed statement. As a result, between the 2016 and 2020 general elections, the number of ballots rejected for signature issues dropped by 5%, according to the Portland Tribune.

Washington already allows voters to return signed statements by mail or, as in the case of King County, by email.

“Something we stress to our constituents all the time is ‘Track your ballot, track your ballot.’ It’s really easy,” said King County election spokesperson Halei Watkins. .

Even with best practices in place, no matter how easy and accessible you make voting, “I think we have to be careful that we’re going to get to 100 percent,” said Snohomish County Auditor Garth Fell. There will always be rejected ballots, and at least in some cases rightly so, he said. Reviewing signatures is subject to human error, said Hamilton, the election attorney.

“They can train them all day, they can send them to school for a year, and they’re still going to make a mistake,” he said. “And they’re going to make a lot of mistakes.”

Fraud is extremely rare

According to the Brennan Center for Justice, an American is more likely to be struck by lightning than to commit mail-in ballot fraud. A survey of prosecutors and county auditors in Washington after the 2016 election identified only two votes that led to prosecutions, both in Asotin County.

Neither was actually counted.

A man has pleaded guilty to perjury, a misdemeanor, for voting on behalf of his late wife, an action he says was part of his “last wishes”. Another man had apparently voted in both Idaho and Washington.

County auditors reported a handful of other cases that weren’t prosecuted: more people voting in two jurisdictions, seniors accidentally voting twice, or other seemingly innocuous situations.

Fell, the Snohomish County auditor, said the bar for proving fraud is high. And most people don’t intentionally try to do it.

“In most cases, when we seek additional information from these people, it’s clear they were confused as to what was permitted by law,” he said.

Signature verification, he said, is the gold standard for identifying these errors. Holmes, the state’s chief electoral officer, said administrators have been thinking about “what’s beyond the signatures” for some time now, especially as cursive writing fades.

For example, Washington could start using personal identification numbers like some other states do.

Such a change would “require a great amount of communication and coordination with the public” about expectations, Holmes said.

Vermont started universal mail-in voting in 2020 and made it permanent this year, but election workers there don’t check signatures. Eight other states, as well as Washington, DC and the Virgin Islands, also do not verify signatures on mail-in ballots.

In this system, no one has their ballot rejected for a mismatched signature, just a missing signature. Critics say this increases the chances of fraud, however small.

Dunn, with the Voting Rights Project, said something had to be done to correct racial disparities. The lawsuit against Yakima, Benton and Chelan counties could force the issue. He could be tried next summer.

“We don’t think the Constitution allows people to say, ‘God, this is difficult, and so we’re going to continue to let this condition continue to exist,'” Dunn said.

InvestigateWest (invw.org) is an independent, non-profit organization dedicated to
investigative journalism in the Pacific Northwest.

For more information about voting, ballot boxes, accessible voting, and online ballots, contact your county elections office. Ballots must be postmarked by Election Day, Nov. 8, or dropped off in a drop box or returned in person to your county election department by 8 p.m. that day. Be sure to sign the ballot envelope.

For more information on your ballot, in any county, go to: myvote.wa.gov

How will your ballot be counted?

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Spain organizes the first day of commemoration of the victims of Franco – Politics https://faaeeantrapologia.com/spain-organizes-the-first-day-of-commemoration-of-the-victims-of-franco-politics/ Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:44:00 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/spain-organizes-the-first-day-of-commemoration-of-the-victims-of-franco-politics/ (ANSAmed) – MADRID, 31 OTT – Spain celebrated Monday for the first time a day “in memory and in tribute to the victims of the military coup, the war and the dictatorship” instituted by the new law on democratic memory. The law came into force in recent days. The reference is to the 1936 military […]]]>

(ANSAmed) – MADRID, 31 OTT – Spain celebrated Monday for the first time a day “in memory and in tribute to the victims of the military coup, the war and the dictatorship” instituted by the new law on democratic memory.

The law came into force in recent days.

The reference is to the 1936 military uprising in which General Francisco Franco’s troops attempted to overthrow the Republican government, as well as subsequent periods of civil strife (1936-1939) and oppressive rule (1939-1975 ).

The date chosen, October 31, marks that of the parliamentary approval of the current Spanish constitution in 1978 in the post-Franco period.

“As a country, we have paid a high price for freedom throughout our history,” said Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez. “So high that in addition to efforts to preserve this legacy, we must never take it for granted.” He added that “the advance of reactionary forces” such as those observed in “several places in Europe” reminds that “progress and democracy are not irreversible”, clearly illustrated by “the autocracy with which Putin invades Ukraine “.

At the beginning of his speech, Sánchez paid tribute to Manuel Azaña, president of the Second Spanish Republic during a period of civil war. (ANS Amed).

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The 2022 Prize of a Spanish Association has been awarded to the Iranian Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education https://faaeeantrapologia.com/the-2022-prize-of-a-spanish-association-has-been-awarded-to-the-iranian-bahai-institute-for-higher-education/ Mon, 31 Oct 2022 01:48:06 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/the-2022-prize-of-a-spanish-association-has-been-awarded-to-the-iranian-bahai-institute-for-higher-education/ Source: www.radiofarda.com Translation by Iran Press Watch The Bahá’í Institute for Higher Learning was established in 1987 to provide facilities for Bahá’í education Reports indicate that the 2022 prize of the Spanish association “Liberpress” has been awarded to the Iranian Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education. The Liberpress Association declared that the Baha’i Institute for Higher […]]]>

Source: www.radiofarda.com

Translation by Iran Press Watch

The Bahá’í Institute for Higher Learning was established in 1987 to provide facilities for Bahá’í education

Reports indicate that the 2022 prize of the Spanish association “Liberpress” has been awarded to the Iranian Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education.

The Liberpress Association declared that the Baha’i Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) deserved the 2022 award for its “commendable efforts to provide higher education to thousands of young Baha’is deprived of education in their country of origin”.

The 2022 Liberpress Prize was awarded jointly to the Bahai Institute for Higher Education and Kianoush Ramezani, a human rights cartoonist.

Since 1999, this prize has been awarded annually to institutions, organizations and individuals who have worked to deepen the culture of solidarity, shared responsibility and human values.

The Baha’i Institute for Higher Learning is an informal educational institution in Iran that was established in 1987 by the Baha’is to provide facilities for the education of their children.

In recent years, many Baha’is have been arrested and sent to prison for teaching and studying at this university, and for this reason official classes are not held at this university.

The students of this university are self-taught and only office hours take place at the homes of the volunteers, to answer all questions.

The Islamic Republic does not recognize the Baha’i Faith as a “divine religion” and its followers, in addition to being denied rights such as college education and government jobs, are still subject to arrest and prosecution for various charges.

In recent years, the exclusion of Baha’is from school has spread to other areas.

In September this year, after it was reported that a high school in Semnan had refused to enroll a student because he was “Bahá’í”, Iran’s Minister of Education said: “If students declare that they practice other religions than the official religions of the country, and this declaration is somehow considered as a form of propaganda, their education in schools is not allowed.

Such comments are made when according to Article 30 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, “the government is obliged to provide free educational and developmental facilities to the whole nation until the end of the year. ‘secondary school”.

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It is imperative that you vote on November 8 [column] | Local voices https://faaeeantrapologia.com/it-is-imperative-that-you-vote-on-november-8-column-local-voices/ Sun, 23 Oct 2022 11:00:00 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/it-is-imperative-that-you-vote-on-november-8-column-local-voices/ Hello to the 351,707 registered voters of Lancaster County. We are 16 days away from the 2022 general election on November 8, and regardless of the hype, this is a very important election. As County Commissioner, I am one of three members of the Lancaster County Board of Elections, so I wanted to take this […]]]>

Hello to the 351,707 registered voters of Lancaster County. We are 16 days away from the 2022 general election on November 8, and regardless of the hype, this is a very important election. As County Commissioner, I am one of three members of the Lancaster County Board of Elections, so I wanted to take this last chance to encourage you to vote.

The last day to register to vote is Monday. If you have a Pennsylvania driver’s license, you can register to vote online at the State Department’s Voters website. Registration can be completed online until 11:59 p.m. Monday.

Now let’s move on to mail-in ballots. Under current state law, you must request an absentee ballot each year. It’s easy to do at vote.pa.gov or by going to the County Elections Office at the Lancaster County Government Center at 150 N. Queen St. in downtown Lancaster. Fun Fact: At the office, you can complete your mail-in ballot application and submit your ballot at the same time! You have until November 1 to request a postal vote. But waiting until Nov. 1 means hoping the ballot will be delivered, filled out, and returned to the county elections office by 8 p.m. on Election Day. So request your mail-in ballot now. At present. Go ahead, stop reading for a moment and make the request. I’ll wait.

Mail-in ballots

As of Friday morning, 42,710 Lancaster County voters had already requested mail-in ballots and 23,904 completed ballots had already been received at the County Elections Office.

Since the May primary, the elections office has secured nearly $400,000 in new equipment to process mail-in ballots faster. This significant improvement automates tasks, allowing election office staff to work more efficiently. So on Election Day, we expect most, if not all, mail-in ballots to be processed by the end of the day.

I know there have been questions about mail-in ballots without dates. In May, a federal court ruled that ballots with undated envelopes should be counted. So Lancaster County did. Note that in the May primary, there were only 84 undated ballots out of 21,947 mail-in ballots received, so only 0.38% of mail-in ballots were undated. A subsequent U.S. Supreme Court ruling overturned May’s decision, and another lawsuit is pending. Thus, the county will again separate undated mail-in ballots, to be counted or not as indicated.

The County Elections Office has been proactive on the above issue. Each mail-in ballot now comes with an instruction sheet (in English and Spanish) to remind voters to sign and date the Voter Declaration on the outer envelope (not the secret envelope) interior). Since there is no longer a drop box in Lancaster County, if you come to the Elections Office to drop off your ballot (come to the Chestnut Street entrance and follow the signs), the professional staff at counter will verify your signature and the date. . Or mail it, but do it quickly and be sure to sign and date the voter’s declaration on the outer envelope.

I would like to once again thank Christa Miller, County Elections Officer, and her team at the Elections Office. Norma, April, Philip, Josette, Rachel, Mary, Courtney and Kenn: I’m looking at you. This team supports the county’s 240 polling places, our incredible 1,300+ Election Day volunteers, and all Lancaster County voters. And, because this is Lancaster County, we have more volunteers than needed (not around the state). Everyone will be working long hours leading up to and during the election. After the election is over, the Elections Office will conduct audits and other post-election checks. As we always do in Lancaster County.

Political calculation

I wish I didn’t have to go into the next issue, but apparently that’s not going away. Without any evidence or real data, Holocaust deniers continue to spread false information about the stolen election — and not just the 2020 presidential election, but the May primary as well. And when given data proving that no fraud took place, their response is that the lack of evidence is proof of that.

What is particularly discouraging is that elected officials, in Lancaster County and across the state and country, either continue to support the lie or refuse to speak out against it. This creates doubts and undermines confidence in our electoral system. I find the tacit encouragement of these lies to be pure political calculation.

Importance of voting

Now back to the vote. In-person voting takes place from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m. on election day. When you vote, remember that no one can block your entrance to a polling station. No one other than voters or accredited officials may be within 10 feet of the polling station door. And no one can watch you vote.

While some might try to cause distractions at the polls in order to support election lies, I think that will be minimal because, well, this is Lancaster County. We are better than that. And if someone does, we’re ready. Lancaster County will enforce your rights to vote and make it count.

I believe that if you don’t vote, you are invisible to politicians. If you don’t vote, they will work for themselves. Elections are when we vote for the people who will work for us. Tell people you know to vote, people you meet to vote, and anyone who says “it doesn’t matter” to vote.

Your three members of the Lancaster County Board of Elections have all served our country in uniform and have been sworn to the Constitution which gives you the power to choose your government.

So, and I apologize for the visual, but imagine me as a cheerleader outside your house, apartment or workplace shouting:

VOTE, DAMN!

VOTE, DAMN!

VOTE, VOTE, VOTE!!

See you soon in the department.

Democratic Lancaster County Commissioner John Trescot is a retired engineer and executive.

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Patricia Green | Maroons and the struggle for land | On point https://faaeeantrapologia.com/patricia-green-maroons-and-the-struggle-for-land-on-point/ Sun, 16 Oct 2022 05:06:19 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/patricia-green-maroons-and-the-struggle-for-land-on-point/ “… A treaty is an agreement between states. Another word for treaty is convention. To be binding, a treaty must be written, made between states, intended to be binding and governed by international law…” explains David Batts in “The Law and the Constitution for Every Jamaican”. In Jamaica, there are two important treaties relating to […]]]>

“… A treaty is an agreement between states. Another word for treaty is convention. To be binding, a treaty must be written, made between states, intended to be binding and governed by international law…” explains David Batts in “The Law and the Constitution for Every Jamaican”. In Jamaica, there are two important treaties relating to land rights: the Treaty of Madrid of 1670 and the Treaty of the Maroons of 1739. I use these to advance the discussion “Changing Land Tenure on Crown Lands” in The Gleaner of September 25, when I wonder who the Maroons of Jamaica were and what exactly is their struggle for the land?

The history of Jamaica and its laws was written from the perspective of the English who captured the island in 1655. To understand the significance of these two treaties, history must go beyond 1655 and back to the Taino lands period. He would then anchor the first “Maroons” [Cimaroones] as displaced Tainos fighting Spain to recover their land, also later joined by displaced Spaniards fighting Britain to recover their property.

My research on the cultural landscape of Spanish Jamaica draws on the work of two senior scholars, the Hon. Sylvia Wynter-Carew OJ, in the 1980s, and the North American Irene Aloha Wright in the 1920s and 1930s. I followed in their footsteps in the Archivo de Indias in Seville, Spain. Jamaica was a Spanish colony for 161 years after the landing of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Wright reports that there were two colonies: Oristan and Seville. My analyzes show that the Spaniards encounter two Taino kingdoms, each with a ruling king called a cacique. Their Spanish names for these kingdoms were territorially what they called Melilla in the north, in which they named this capital Taino and adopted it as their own, calling it Seville (c. 1509). It is important to note that historical Spanish documents omit any reference to “New Seville”. Oristan was the Spanish name given to the other Taino kingdom in the south with a capital that the Spaniards called “La Villa” and used as their main town called Santiago de la Vega (c. 1509), now called Spanish Town. Thus, the Taino lands became lands of the Spanish Crown.

ENCOMIENDA

Wynter-Carew developed a system of neo-serfdom called Encomienda in which caciques provided labor and provisions to Spanish settlers. For example, the 1525 church project in Seville, Jamaica was being built by skilled Taino stonemasons and craftsmen led by cacique Juan de Medina. Although unfinished, its sculpture fragments testify to a cultural syncretism of great importance for understanding the history of art in the Americas. Moors [Moros] ethnic North Africans in Spanish Jamaica, as enslaved labor to the king, were responsible for the open beaches between the estates [realengo] under the protection of the king as Crown lands for cattle ranching which fueled exploration activities in Central and North America.

Frank Cundall and Joseph Luckert Pietersz in ‘Jamaica Under the Spaniards: Abstracted from the Archives of Seville’, share that in 1611 the Spanish population of Jamaica was approximately 1,510, 37% of whom were slaves; 35% Spanish men and women; 11% Spanish children; seven percent free “nigger”; five percent foreigners/newcomers; and five percent “Indians” from Jamaica [Tainos]. According to studies in the Hispanic Americas, “Spanish” freed people included Christian converts with Spanish names of all ethnicities, including indigenous and African peoples. So when Britain invaded and captured Jamaica from Spain in 1655, it encountered an integrated productive society, drove these inhabitants from their homes and lands and settled in their buildings, claiming them as British property.

Some Spaniards fled the island, however, many remained, leading guerrilla warfare. Infamous, as recorded by the Jamaica National Heritage Trust, was Juan de Bolas whose Spanish name was Juan Lubolo, considered the first maroon chieftain. Lubolo aided Jamaica’s last Spanish governor, Don Christoval Arnaldo Ysassi, in the guerrilla wars against Britain in Jamaica from 1655 until Ysassi’s departure in 1660. The following year, the British monarch, the King Charles II, by proclamation of 1661, placed all land on the island of Jamaica under the ownership of the British Crown and granted land grants to freed Britons. King Charles II proclaimed that they “…shall hold and enjoy the said lands to be allotted, and all houses, edifices, buildings and enclosures, to be built or made upon, to them and their heirs forever.. .”.

TREATY OF MADRID

The Treaty of Madrid of 1670 was concluded between Charles II, King of Great Britain and Carlos II, King of Spain “…for the settlement of disputes, the limitation of depredations, and the establishment of peace in America, between the crowns of Great Britain and Spain…”. Eighty-four years later, the Maroons, as intergenerational Spanish nationals, entered into the Maroon Treaty of 1739 to compensate for the loss of their lands to Britain and were granted lands by the British Crown. Respectfully, I submit that the Maroon Treaty responded to the separation of these original maroons and their descendants inside Jamaica as Spaniards alongside those of Great Britain. I manipulated documents from the Jamaican government archives showing maroon returns listing their own enslaved people.

The maroon lands should therefore be considered Taino and Spanish family lands, and Batts posits that here in Jamaica family lands are often referred to “…but they are not yet recognized in our law…inherited from generation to generation within the family and of general convention does not sell…” The maroon treaty reads under the third clause “…they shall enjoy and possess, and their posterity forever”.

Understand that if an enslaved African fled British plantation slavery to join the Maroon community, then that enslaved African would automatically have been undesirable. Also, if he remained, the possibility of being entitled to a generational inheritance may have become an issue. This therefore explains why the Maroons arrest and bring runaways back into plantation slavery. Significantly, this points to the event of 1796, when between 550 and 600 “maroon” men, women, and children were exiled from Trelawny, Jamaica, and shipped to Nova Scotia, Canada, en route to Africa. Batts states that a “trespasser” is a “squatter”, stating that “…the Trespass Act was passed in 1851 as part of the effort to ensure that recently enfranchised people would continue to work on sugar cane plantations. sugar. Trespassing into the land is not a crime in England but a tort (tort)…”. Similarly, the maroon state would have viewed runaways as intruders or squatters in their community.

What if successive governments set in motion the use of Crown lands to remedy land injustice, as was done through the Maroon Treaty of 1739? Perhaps this would help prevent crime and reduce the generational landlessness of Jamaicans who continually demonstrate their ability to afford affordable housing.

Patricia Green, PhD, architect and registered ecologist, is an independent researcher and advocate for the built and natural environment. Send your comments to patgreen2008@gmail.com.

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Monterey to host live re-enactment of 1849 California Constitutional Convention https://faaeeantrapologia.com/monterey-to-host-live-re-enactment-of-1849-california-constitutional-convention/ Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:44:36 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/monterey-to-host-live-re-enactment-of-1849-california-constitutional-convention/ MONTEREY — This weekend — almost exactly 173 years after California’s first constitution was completed and signed in Monterey — the city brings back an annual testament to historic accomplishment that hasn’t happened since 2019. The Monterey Division of Museums and Cultural Arts is hosting a live re-enactment of the 1849 California Constitutional Convention at […]]]>

MONTEREY — This weekend — almost exactly 173 years after California’s first constitution was completed and signed in Monterey — the city brings back an annual testament to historic accomplishment that hasn’t happened since 2019.

The Monterey Division of Museums and Cultural Arts is hosting a live re-enactment of the 1849 California Constitutional Convention at Colton Hall on Sunday from 2-4 p.m., though usually held as part of the city’s annual history festival. city, which is not returning this year, the convention re-enactment resumes as a standalone event.

“With the reenactment, we are delighted to have her back. … It means a lot to us,” said City of Monterey artifact specialist Jordan Leininger. “Not all of our museums are open as often as before the pandemic. … We like to organize these events which attract a lot of people to museums. We’re excited to have some of that normalcy, especially with Colton Hall as one of California’s most historic sites.

For a month and a half in 1849, Colton Hall was the scene of an arduous debate that ultimately laid the groundwork for California statehood. The 43-day fall convention brought together 48 delegates of diverse interests and backgrounds to craft the document needed to govern the newly acquired western lands after the Mexican-American War.

Major issues raised at the convention included slavery, suffrage, who could hold elective office, education, and women’s property rights. The final constitution was signed on October 13, 1849. It was published in English and Spanish.

Leininger said the convention was important for the city to commemorate because “it reviews our cultural diversity and shows how California began as a progressive state.”

“This event features…different cultures, different people (and) different countries coming together in a unified front to create a whole new state at the time,” he continued. “It just goes to show that with all the turmoil going on in the world today, (the 1849 convention) was one of the best events in history, and we’re proud of what it means to us. and for the state.

Performed by a local troupe, this weekend’s re-enactment will highlight crucial moments and debates from the convention, Leininger said. Places for the event are limited and reservations are required to attend. Those interested can register at https://bit.ly/3CpfJkw

Meanwhile, speaking about the full return of History Fest, Leininger said he hoped the multi-day celebration would return next year, but couldn’t say for sure it would see a revival.

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