Spanish war – FAAEE Antrapologia http://faaeeantrapologia.com/ Fri, 22 Oct 2021 03:57:44 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-1-120x120.png Spanish war – FAAEE Antrapologia http://faaeeantrapologia.com/ 32 32 Unexpected lessons from Spain’s economic boom https://faaeeantrapologia.com/unexpected-lessons-from-spains-economic-boom/ https://faaeeantrapologia.com/unexpected-lessons-from-spains-economic-boom/#respond Fri, 22 Oct 2021 03:05:35 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/unexpected-lessons-from-spains-economic-boom/ Much of the debate over the Spanish economy in recent decades has focused on issues such as persistent unemployment. Building on a new book, Oscar Calvo-Gonzalez argues that putting these failures aside and taking a fresh look at the country’s economic successes can provide surprising information. “What is Spain’s main export? The question was intended […]]]>

Much of the debate over the Spanish economy in recent decades has focused on issues such as persistent unemployment. Building on a new book, Oscar Calvo-Gonzalez argues that putting these failures aside and taking a fresh look at the country’s economic successes can provide surprising information.

“What is Spain’s main export? The question was intended as a small conversation, addressed to Spanish Prime Minister José María Aznar by one of President George W. Bush’s closest advisers as the two waited for the US president to join the meeting. Aznar responded in his trademark laconic manner, “Cars”. Supposing he had been misunderstood, the American continued: “No, I’m asking about the number one product Spain sells abroad.” What Aznar insisted on, “Cars”. Baffled, the American tried again: “No, no, what I want to know is which Spanish product sells the best abroad”, and Aznar simply repeated: “Yes, cars, cars.

Spain is not only a major exporter of cars, but one of the few economies that has successfully made the transition from middle income to high income in recent decades. Of more than a hundred middle-income economies in 1960, only a dozen had become high-income economies by the end of the 20th century. The discovery that transitions to high income status were relatively rare led economists Indermit Gill and Homi Kharas to coined the term “middle income trap”.

It was a way of drawing attention not only to this stylized fact but, more importantly, to the lack of a satisfactory framework to assist decision-makers in their efforts to move from middle to high incomes. An abundance of literature has followed, often questioning whether this can be considered a “trap” or not. Regardless, the number of countries that have transitioned to high income countries remains low. And the attention of development practitioners tends to focus on even fewer success stories – like South Korea. Some of Spain’s economic failures are so well-known, particularly the stubbornly high unemployment rate, that observers rarely implicitly associate Spain with economic success.

Worse yet, the experience of Spain’s accession to high-income country status is often misunderstood. The economic development of Spain over the past decades is considered by many to be inevitable. Above all, the standard count goes, Spain’s European neighbors were wealthy and eager to help. While the country may have bottomed out after its civil war in the 1930s, the standard account continues, it was doomed to bounce back. I will return to the role of Europe below, but first let me briefly present the conundrum.

In 1950, Spain’s GDP per capita had diverged from major economies for a century and a half. External and internal commentators despaired of desperate politics, repeated cycles of violence, corrupt practices or the incompetence of the authorities. However, in the next thirty years, Spain would catch up with around 30 percentage points of GDP per capita compared to the United States, which itself is experiencing a golden age of growth. Admittedly, the external context was favorable at the time, but the country had hitherto not been able to capitalize on other occasions of good external conditions.

Even more damning for the view that Spain’s catching-up is largely the result of a rebound is the fact that the sources of growth have changed, with a significant increase in the contribution of productivity growth. In addition, the frequency with which the economy was contracting, as opposed to growing, was also sharply reduced. These two factors suggest a qualitatively different basis for growth in the decades after 1950. And the success extended to social aspects. Indeed, on many human development indicators, Spain’s catching up with the leading countries was more complete than in terms of production. Progress on social measures has not rebounded either. Spain may have been a military power at the start of the modern period, but its literacy rate was lower than that of Britain by about two centuries until the 19th century.

Spain’s economic boom as a high-income country has been largely overlooked and often misunderstood. Having a fresh outlook on Spain’s economic development is very profitable.

Little is known about this story because much of the existing literature on Spain’s economic development has been interested in documenting shortcomings in economic policies or institutions that have prevented more comprehensive catch-up. And, in hindsight, the list of sub-optimal policies was not short, including high tariff protection, excessive regulations, insufficient public revenue collection, limited support for innovation, and inefficient public spending, among others. others. But by focusing on the half-empty glass, we risk overlooking how, despite all these flaws, the glass got half-full.

Changing this perspective changes questions and ideas about Spain’s economic trajectory. Some courses are known. Without first controlling political violence and ensuring political stability – a byproduct of the Cold War – take-off would have been unlikely and unsustainable. Spain has benefited from good macroeconomic policy, or more precisely from the correction of bad macroeconomic policies. It has also benefited greatly from increased openness – especially to foreign direct investment – which was one of the many avenues to greater market discipline.

But other ideas are not what you might expect. The initial set of economic reforms, often seen as measures of last resort in times of crisis, are better explained in Spain by political stability than by economic instability. Subsequent reforms, often ridiculed as lacking in ambition, can be seen as “political tinkering” which, on the whole, has led to greater contestability. Often in an intriguing way.

Cars, to go back to the story with which we started this blog, are a good illustration of this. In the 1950s, the national auto industry consisted of a state-owned company and a subsidiary of Renault which was to have a local partner – who happened to be the dictator’s brother. Car imports were subject to high tariffs and, unsurprisingly, a lot of corruption. Not the most auspicious beginnings. And yet, the automotive industry that was to develop in Spain did not do so despite protection and regulations, but because of them.

Local content rules have been put in place and applied; above all, local suppliers were put into competition. Foreign companies have set up factories and brought in technology, in part attracted by the highly protected domestic market. But protection was associated with competition in certain ways. For example, a new Ford plant was authorized on condition that it exports at least two-thirds of its production. This created the right incentives for both a competitive operation and one that created linkages at the national level. In a relatively short period of time, a competitive market of auto parts suppliers has developed.

And what about Europe? Access to European markets was important for openness to yield the desired results, but the path to prosperity depended on many institutional developments that took place long before EU membership. Especially the idea of the Europeanization of Spain has helped to create a political and social consensus which has proved to be essential.

Spain’s economic boom as a high-income country has been largely overlooked and often misunderstood. Having a fresh outlook on Spain’s economic development is very profitable. While each country’s path is unique, this updated view of the country’s trajectory is a useful case study of how development actually happens without perfect institutions and despite unpromising initial conditions.

For more information, see the author’s new book, Unexpected prosperity: how Spain escaped the middle-income trap, to be published by Oxford University Press on October 23


Note: This article gives the author’s point of view, not the position of EUROPP – European Politics and Policy or the London School of Economics. Featured Image Credit: Jorge Fernandez Salas to Unsplash



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Today in history for October 21, 2021 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/today-in-history-for-october-21-2021/ https://faaeeantrapologia.com/today-in-history-for-october-21-2021/#respond Thu, 21 Oct 2021 03:36:58 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/today-in-history-for-october-21-2021/ Today is Thursday, October 21, the 294th day of 2021. There are 71 days left in the year. Today’s highlight in history: On October 21, 1966, 144 people, including 116 children, were killed when a landslide of waste coal engulfed a school and some 20 homes in Aberfan, Wales. To this date : In 1797, […]]]>

Today is Thursday, October 21, the 294th day of 2021. There are 71 days left in the year.

Today’s highlight in history:

On October 21, 1966, 144 people, including 116 children, were killed when a landslide of waste coal engulfed a school and some 20 homes in Aberfan, Wales.

To this date :

In 1797, the US Navy frigate Constitution, also known as the “Old Ironsides”, was christened in Boston Harbor.

In 1805, a British fleet commanded by Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated a Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar; Nelson, however, was killed.

In 1879, Thomas Edison developed an electric light for use in his laboratory in Menlo Park, NJ

In 1944, during World War II, American troops captured the German city of Aachen (AH’-kuhn).

In 1945, women in France were allowed to vote in parliamentary elections for the first time.

In 1967, the Israeli destroyer INS Eilat (ay-LAHT ‘) was sunk by Egyptian missile ships near Port-Said (sah-EED’); 47 Israeli crew members were lost. Tens of thousands of Vietnam War protesters began two days of protests in Washington, DC

In 1969, poet and author Jack Kerouac died in St. Petersburg, Florida, at the age of 47.

In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Lewis F. Powell and William H. Rehnquist to the Supreme Court of the United States. (Both nominees have been confirmed.)

In 2001 in Washington, DC, postman Thomas L. Morris Jr. died of inhalation anthrax as authorities began testing thousands of postal workers.

In 2012, former Senator and 1972 Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern, 90, died in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

In 2014, North Korea brutally released Jeffrey Fowle, an American, nearly six months after his arrest for leaving a Bible in a nightclub. Former Washington Post editor Ben Bradlee, 93, has died in Washington.

In 2015, Vice President Joe Biden announced he would not run for the White House campaign in 2016, further strengthening Hillary Rodham Clinton’s status as Democratic leader.

Ten years ago: President Barack Obama declared that the long and deeply unpopular US war in Iraq would be over by the end of 2011 and that all US troops “will definitely be home for the holidays” .

Five years ago: Cyber ​​attacks on the server farms of a key Internet company repeatedly interrupted access to major websites and online services, including Twitter, Netflix and PayPal, across the United States.

A year ago: Republican Senator Mitt Romney of Utah, the party’s 2012 presidential candidate, told CNN he voted in the Nov. 3 election, but not for Donald Trump. Former President Barack Obama made his first in-person campaign pitch for Joe Biden, urging Philadelphia voters, especially black males, not to stay out of the election and risk having Trump re-elected. Spain became the first country in Western Europe to reach more than one million confirmed cases of coronavirus. The Justice Department said drugmaker Purdue Pharma, the company behind the potent prescription pain reliever OxyContin that experts said helped spark an opioid epidemic, would plead guilty to federal criminal charges in a settlement of over $ 8 billion. At least 10 bodies were found in an anonymous mass grave in Tulsa, Oklahoma, where investigators were looking for the remains of victims of the Tulsa Race Massacre in 1921.

Today’s birthdays: Actress Joyce Randolph is 97 years old. Rock singer Manfred Mann is 81 years old. Musician Steve Cropper (Booker T. & the MG’s) is 80 years old. Singer Elvin Bishop is 79 years old. Judge Judy Sheindlin is 79 years old. Actor Everett McGill is 76 years old. Musician Lee Loughnane (LAHK’-nayn) (Chicago) is 75 years old. Actor Dick Christie is 73 years old. Former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is 72 years old. Actor LaTanya Richardson Jackson is 72 years old. Musician Charlotte Caffey (The Go-Go’s) is 68 years old. Director Catherine Hardwicke is 66 years old. Singer Julian Cope is 64 years old. Rock musician Steve Lukather (Toto) is 64 years old. Actor Ken Watanabe (wah-tah-NAH’-bee) is 62 years old. Actor Melora Walters is 61 years old. Rock singer-musician Nick Oliveri (Mondo Generator) is 50 years old. Christian rock musician Charlie Lowell (Jars of Clay) is 48 years old. Actor Jeremy Miller is 45 years old. Country singer Matthew Ramsey (Old Dominion) is 44 years old. Actor Will Estes is 43 years old. Actor Michael McMillian is 43 years old. Reality TV star Kim Kardashian (kahr-DASH’-ee-uhn) West is 41 years old. Actor Matt Dallas is 39 years old. Actress Charlotte Sullivan is 38. Actor Aaron Tveit (tuh-VAYT ‘) is 38 years old. Actor Glenn Powell is 33 years old. Country singer Kane Brown is 28 years old.


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At last! “The History of the World Part II” is finally underway – prepare for “fake stories of nonsense” https://faaeeantrapologia.com/at-last-the-history-of-the-world-part-ii-is-finally-underway-prepare-for-fake-stories-of-nonsense/ https://faaeeantrapologia.com/at-last-the-history-of-the-world-part-ii-is-finally-underway-prepare-for-fake-stories-of-nonsense/#respond Tue, 19 Oct 2021 02:24:00 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/at-last-the-history-of-the-world-part-ii-is-finally-underway-prepare-for-fake-stories-of-nonsense/ It’s good to be the king. . . again! Over 40 years after the release of “History of the World, Part I”, Mel Brooks & Co. are back with an eight-part sequel titled – you guessed it! – “History of the world, part II.” It took quite a long time. On Monday, Hulu announced that […]]]>

It’s good to be the king. . . again! Over 40 years after the release of “History of the World, Part I”, Mel Brooks & Co. are back with an eight-part sequel titled – you guessed it! – “History of the world, part II.” It took quite a long time.

On Monday, Hulu announced that the variety comedy series will begin production next spring, while the Writers’ Room meets this month. Brooks – who is a lively 95-year-old – will return as writer and executive producer of the next series, with familiar young comedic names like “Big Mouth” co-creator Nick Kroll, Wanda Sykes, Ike Barinholtz of “The Mindy Project”, David Stassen and Kevin Salter. But little has been revealed about the cast, plot, or historical events to be included in this iteration of “History of the World.”

“I can’t wait to tell the real truth once again about all the fake nonsense stories the world has been made to believe is history!” Brooks said in a statement released by Hulu.

You will recall that “History of the World, Part I” explores comic tales of the Stone Age, the Old Testament of the Bible, the Roman Empire, the Spanish Inquisition and the French Revolution.

In the original film’s most memorable scenes, Brooks is Moses during the Old Testament arc of “Part I”, announcing the original 15 commandments, before dropping five of the tablets and announcing, instead. , the 10 Commandments. During the Roman Empire, Brooks was a stand-up comedian, Comicus, employed at various times by the doomed Julius Caesar and the notoriously cruel Emperor Nero. At the start of the French Revolution, aka the most iconic and violent class war in history, Brooks is King Louis, shocked to learn that the peasants don’t really like him.

As for the delicacies of “History of the World, Part II”, the last moments of “Part I” may offer some ideas. “Part I” ends with a trailer for the next episode, promising to include storylines like Hitler on Ice, stories about the Vikings and “Jews in Space”, which would parody “Star Wars” and “The Muppet Show. “. (Or you know, maybe it was “Spaceballs.”) This trailer, of course, wasn’t meant to be taken seriously, as there was no plan at this point for a sequel.

And over the decades, the lack of a sequel seemed like everyone’s ultimate joke. Until now.

With “Part II” now confirmed and in the works, the last 40 years since the release of “Part I” contain more than enough content for an eight-part series, on its own, between the end of the Cold War, the Internet. , the 2016 Presidential Election, the global COVID pandemic, and more.

Of course, there would be no “Part II” without the way “World History Part I” has stood the test of time, with its scathing and hilarious critiques of racism, sexim, inequality. wealth and violence. It’s the kind of satire we need more than ever today, as these mighty forces, ripe for mockery and derision, persist.

It’s not yet clear when “History of the World, Part II” will release on Hulu, but with every day of 2020 and much of 2021 feeling like the story in progress, “Part II” certainly has our attention.


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Algeria and Morocco fight over gas, separatists and Western Sahara https://faaeeantrapologia.com/algeria-and-morocco-fight-over-gas-separatists-and-western-sahara/ https://faaeeantrapologia.com/algeria-and-morocco-fight-over-gas-separatists-and-western-sahara/#respond Mon, 18 Oct 2021 04:00:13 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/algeria-and-morocco-fight-over-gas-separatists-and-western-sahara/ Threats to cut gas supplies, allegations of support for a separatist group and renewed tensions in disputed territory – relations between Algeria and Morocco, rivals who have waged a border war, have deteriorated in recent weeks. One of the consequences of the deterioration of relations is that the Algerian Minister of Petroleum has declared that […]]]>

Threats to cut gas supplies, allegations of support for a separatist group and renewed tensions in disputed territory – relations between Algeria and Morocco, rivals who have waged a border war, have deteriorated in recent weeks.

One of the consequences of the deterioration of relations is that the Algerian Minister of Petroleum has declared that his country will not renew the agreement, which expires at the end of October, which governs a gas pipeline carrying Algerian natural gas through Morocco to Morocco. Spain. Algiers has also banned Moroccan flights from its airspace.

Algerian security services announced last week that they had arrested 17 people and foiled a plot to carry out armed attacks by the Movement for the Autonomy of Kabylia, MAK, a Paris-based group that calls for self-determination of the Berber-speaking region of Kabylia in northern Algeria. The group denied any involvement in the violence and said it only used peaceful means.

The announcement indicated that the alleged MAK agents, designated as a terrorist organization in Algeria, were aided by “the Zionist entity. [Israel] and a country in North Africa ”- understood as a reference to Morocco, which normalized relations with the Jewish state last year.

Still strained, ties between North African neighbors have completely severed due to renewed tensions in the disputed territory of Western Sahara, and analysts warn of the danger of escalation.

“The biggest risk is the miscalculation,” said Riccardo Fabiani, director of North Africa at the International Crisis Group, a conflict resolution organization. “While neither Algeria nor Morocco has an interest in starting a war, the risk is that tensions will escalate beyond control if either side goes too far. This miscalculation could lie in Western Sahara, fueling a military escalation. . . or it could lead to direct border clashes between the two countries, for example. “

Morocco, which controls most of the arid and sparsely populated territory of Western Sahara since Spain’s withdrawal in 1975, claims sovereignty. But Algeria welcomes and supports the Polisario Front, the Sahrawi group fighting for the independence of the territory.

Plans for a UN referendum on self-determination for Western Sahara have stalled for decades. A 30-year ceasefire was broken in November last year and the Polisario Front resumed low-intensity lightning attacks and long-range bombardments against Moroccan positions in the territory.

Morocco’s claim to Western Sahara was reinforced by the American recognition of its sovereignty over the territory in December 2020 under the administration of Donald Trump, in return for the normalization of Rabat’s relations with Israel.

A result of the US recognition, analysts say, is that Morocco has pursued a more assertive foreign policy aimed at bringing about a similar shift in countries still adhering to the UN position on disputed territory. He froze relations with the German embassy in Rabat and recalled his own ambassador to Berlin because Germany criticized the US decision.

American support and normalization with Israel have changed the dynamics of relations between Morocco and Algeria, according to Fabiani. “With the normalization agreement, Morocco now has access to Israeli technology such as drones,” he added. “We fear in Algiers that this will change the balance of power. ”

Algeria severed relations in August after Morocco’s ambassador to the UN declared that “the valiant Kabyle people deserve, more than any other, to fully enjoy their right to self-determination.”

Algerian President Abdelmadjid Tebboune clarified last week that no decision had yet been taken on the pipeline, although he suggested his country would close any breaches of its pledge to supply gas to Spain through LNG transport.

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Morocco used the gas from the pipeline to supply part of its electricity production and also benefited from a royalty for passage through its territory. Losing access to natural gas would be “a major drawback, but Morocco has prepared for it,” said Anthony Skinner, Middle East and North Africa director at Verisk Maplecroft, a UK risk consultancy. That would, however, force the kingdom to resort to more expensive LNG or coal, he said.

Tebboune also increased the belligerent tone in his interview. He said anyone who attacks Algeria “will regret the day they were born, because we will not stop [fighting]”. He added: “Morocco has a long and repeated history of hostile acts against Algeria.

Dalia Ghanem, resident scholar at the Carnegie Middle East Center in Beirut, pointed out that Algeria was also outraged by revelations in July that Morocco had used the Pegasus malware developed by NSO Group, an Israeli company, to hack phones. hundreds of its officials. Rabat has denied the charges. “Both regimes are trying to keep their populations occupied with trivial matters instead of focusing on what’s going on inside because both have to deal with internal dissent,” she said.

Mohammed Masbah, director of the Moroccan Institute for Policy Analysis, said relations between the two countries were “like an endless cold war”, and “Algerians felt threatened and cornered”. He warned of the potential for inadvertent violence. “In the current situation, the best outcome would be to return to the status quo before the current escalation and to manage the crisis through diplomacy.”


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‘Bear’: Wreck of legendary Coast Guard vessel identified six decades later https://faaeeantrapologia.com/bear-wreck-of-legendary-coast-guard-vessel-identified-six-decades-later/ https://faaeeantrapologia.com/bear-wreck-of-legendary-coast-guard-vessel-identified-six-decades-later/#respond Sun, 17 Oct 2021 02:12:00 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/bear-wreck-of-legendary-coast-guard-vessel-identified-six-decades-later/ The search for a historic ship spanning nearly half a century ended with the discovery of its final resting place, putting an end to the mystery of the fate of one of the most important ships in American history . Known as the US Revenue Cutter (USRC) Bear, the ship has been missing since 1963. […]]]>

The search for a historic ship spanning nearly half a century ended with the discovery of its final resting place, putting an end to the mystery of the fate of one of the most important ships in American history .

Known as the US Revenue Cutter (USRC) Bear, the ship has been missing since 1963. But before its disappearance, it had known almost eight decades of use, while being a wooden ship.

Built in 1874 in Scotland, Bear was originally intended to be a seal hunter and served in that capacity for 10 years before being purchased by the United States. The reason for this purchase was an emergency. In 1881, US Army Lt. Adolphus Greely led an expedition to Ellesmere Island in northern Greenland to study the weather, but they found themselves stranded. Two years of rescue efforts had previously failed, but finally, in 1884, Bear was sent for work and managed to save Greely and other members of the expedition, and established himself around the world.

For the next 41 years, Bear continued to embark on Arctic rescue missions. But most remarkable was the fact that between 1886 and 1895, Bear was commanded by “Hell Roaring” Mike Healy, the most famous captain in US Coast Guard history who, being the son of a plantation slave, was the first African American to command a US government ship – although because his father owned a plantation, he appeared white and never disclosed his inheritance.

Bear made numerous rescue efforts during this tenure, including the 1897 Land Rescue, one of the largest rescue missions in Coast Guard history.

The USS Bear is seen in 1944 (Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

“While BearWith a 40-year career in Alaska, the cutter has carried out some of the most daring and successful Arctic rescues in history, ”said William Thiesen, official historian of the Atlantic Coast Guard, at a conference Press, CBS News reported. “And when malnourished Native Americans needed food, Bear brought it. When stranded whalers needed to be rescued, Bear saved them. One hundred years ago, when thousands of Alaskans contracted the Spanish flu during the pandemic, Bear brought doctors and drugs.

But the ship soon found itself embroiled in the fray of the Spanish-American War and later World War I.

Bear was then decommissioned in 1929, becoming a maritime museum in Oakland, and then served two major Antarctic expeditions.

But after that, World War II started, and Bear once again sailed into the fray. The ship served in the Greenland Patrol, and it was here that it had arguably its most famous moment: playing a role in the capture of Buskoe, a Norwegian ship used by the Nazis to provide secret German weather stations and send weather reports to the Nazis, making it one of the first Axis ships seized by the United States during WWII, even if the United States were still two months away from joining the war.

This mandate made Bear the only American ship to have served in the Spanish-American War as well as in the two world wars, but it was also the last time it was in service. The ship’s owners changed hands and it ended up alone on a Nova Scotia dock before a Philadelphia businessman bought it, intending to convert it into a museum and restaurant in Waterside.

Unfortunately, this new job was a Bear would never manage to accomplish. On the way to Philadelphia, Bear was lost at sea, sinking some 90 miles south of Cape Sable, Nova Scotia.

For decades people had been looking for this historic ship. For years, none of these research efforts were successful.

But that changed in 2019, when an unidentified wreckage was discovered in the area. Two years later, the Coast Guard and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) set to work investigating the wreckage. And it was with this investigation that they became “reasonably certain” that Bear had finally been found.

The discovery of this ship finally puts an end to the history of such a historic ship. More than 60 years after his passing, his legacy is never forgotten and he remains honored by the Coast Guard to this day.


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Spain seeks descendants of 5,200 Jews rescued by “Spanish Schindler” https://faaeeantrapologia.com/spain-seeks-descendants-of-5200-jews-rescued-by-spanish-schindler/ https://faaeeantrapologia.com/spain-seeks-descendants-of-5200-jews-rescued-by-spanish-schindler/#respond Sat, 16 Oct 2021 05:31:42 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/spain-seeks-descendants-of-5200-jews-rescued-by-spanish-schindler/ MADRID (JTA) – In an unprecedented effort to find loved ones and share their stories, Spanish authorities release a list of Hungarian Jews protected from the Nazis by a diplomat nicknamed the “Spanish Schindler”. Ángel Sanz Briz was recognized as Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem, the Israeli Holocaust memorial and museum, in 1966 […]]]>

MADRID (JTA) – In an unprecedented effort to find loved ones and share their stories, Spanish authorities release a list of Hungarian Jews protected from the Nazis by a diplomat nicknamed the “Spanish Schindler”.

Ángel Sanz Briz was recognized as Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem, the Israeli Holocaust memorial and museum, in 1966 for using an ingenious legal maneuver to save over 5,200 Jews to be deported to Auschwitz in 1944.

But even though his efforts saved five times as many Jews as Oskar Schindler’s, his story is far less well known – in part because the fiercely anti-Israel Franco regime that ruled Spain from 1939 to 1975 , forbade him to accept Yad Vashem’s project. honor.

Now the Centro Sefarad-Israel – a Sephardic cultural institution that is part of the Spanish Foreign Ministry – is working to change that. With the support of the Spanish government archives, the group is releasing the names of the people it has protected, along with details about them, with the aim of locating their descendants and publicizing their stories.

Between June and December 1944, Sanz Briz, then a 32-year-old Spanish diplomat stationed in Hungary, did himself justice by creating false Spanish passports for thousands of Jews. Despite the fact that Hungary’s Jewish community was predominantly Ashkenazi, Sanz Briz and his aides granted Spanish citizenship to Hungarian Jews on the basis of a long-expired 1924 Spanish law that extended citizenship to descendants of Sephardic Jews. expelled from Spain in 1492.

Sanz Briz went to great lengths to ensure that hundreds of Hungarian families were placed under the protection of Spain. As the Nazis moved closer to the city’s Jews, the Spanish diplomat rented 11 apartment buildings to house around 5,000 people. He placed the Spanish flag on the buildings, passing them off as official properties of the Spanish legation, assuring the authorities would not seize them. He also hid families at the Spanish Embassy in Buda.

Diplomatic identity card of Ángel Sanz Briz, issued in 1942. (Centro Serafad-Israel / via JTA)

“For him, the principle of humanity prevailed over the principle of legality,” Miguel de Lucas, director of Centro Sefarad-Israel, told Spanish daily El País in a statement. recent maintenance.

The publication of documents represents a historic milestone for Spain, as it is the first time that the General Archives of the Administration have made available to the public.

In addition to the list of rescued Jews, the Archives of the General Administration have made available a report written by Slovak Jews Alfred Wetzler and Rudolf Vrba, two fugitives from Auschwitz who escaped on April 7, 1944, after spending nearly two years in prison. The report, which was handed to Sanz Briz and then sent to Madrid, includes a sketch of the concentration camp. It became one of the most important pieces of evidence presented at the Nuremberg trials of 1945.

At the end of World War II, Sanz Briz resumed his diplomatic career. After leaving his post in Hungary in 1960, he was appointed Ambassador to Guatemala. In 1962, he was appointed Consul General in New York. He later became Spanish Ambassador to the Holy See and died on June 11, 1980, while on a diplomatic mission in Rome.

Hungary, whose Sanz Briz Jews helped, has already honored him. He was awarded the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary in 1994, and in 2015, a street in Budapest was renowned after him.

Centro Sefarad-Israel has set up an email address so that anyone who recognizes their name or that of a family member on the Sanz Briz lists can get in touch.

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“Frida”, Portland Black Music Expo, Oregon Ballet Theater, “War of the Worlds”: 8 things to do this week https://faaeeantrapologia.com/frida-portland-black-music-expo-oregon-ballet-theater-war-of-the-worlds-8-things-to-do-this-week/ https://faaeeantrapologia.com/frida-portland-black-music-expo-oregon-ballet-theater-war-of-the-worlds-8-things-to-do-this-week/#respond Thu, 14 Oct 2021 03:14:43 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/frida-portland-black-music-expo-oregon-ballet-theater-war-of-the-worlds-8-things-to-do-this-week/ October has proven to be a month of intense entertainment with many theater and dance performances to accompany the many fall festivals and exhibitions. If you can get away from the many Halloween-themed events on offer, catch a big quilting show in Clark County or stay home and watch dance movies. Most of the in-person […]]]>

October has proven to be a month of intense entertainment with many theater and dance performances to accompany the many fall festivals and exhibitions. If you can get away from the many Halloween-themed events on offer, catch a big quilting show in Clark County or stay home and watch dance movies. Most of the in-person performances listed below require proof of COVID vaccination or a negative COVID test for entry. Check with performance companies for details.

LaRhonda Steele sings with Lloyd Jones Struggle at the 2014 Safeway Waterfront Blues Festival. Steele will be one of the headliners at the Portland Black Music Expo. Oregon file photo. LC- Oregonian

Portland Black Music Show

This multicultural festival reflects the richness of black culture in the region and includes headliners Mic Capes, Tahirah Memory and LaRhonda Steele, recently inducted into the Oregon Music Hall of Fame. The festival will feature live on-site performances at Holocene and Polaris Hall as well as community development workshops in the form of a mix of live and virtual events. The launch event is “Soul Clap” with Mic Capes, Majik 9, Wavy Josef and others at 8 PM Friday, Polaris Hall 635 N. Killingsworth Ct. Tickets $ 10.

Festival hours vary from Friday to Sunday, October 15-17. Check the website for times and tickets; portlandblackmusicexpo.com.

Two ballet dancers wearing face masks practice in a studio

Dancers from the Oregon Ballet Theater rehearse for “Three Preludes”. Photo by Blaine Truitt CovertBlaine Truitt Covert

“Face to face”

The Oregon Ballet Theater returns to the indoor stage with three ballets that bring nature to the dance floor. In Ben Stevenson’s “Three Preludes”, a careful studio flirtation between two dancers turns into passion. George Balanchine’s “The Four Temperaments” is loosely based on the ancient notion of mixing four basic human personality types. The event ends with “Sculpted Clouds” by Jennifer Archibald, an exploration of man’s relationship with nature.

Performances 7:30 p.m. Friday, 2 p.m. and 7:30 p.m. Saturday, October 15 and 16, Auditorium Keller, 222 SW Clay St .; tickets from $ 24 to $ 105; obt.org/face-à-face or by phone at 503-222-5538. No child aged 12 or younger is allowed.

A woman leans against a dark pillar

Vanessa Severo stars as Frida Kahlo in KCRep’s 2019 production of “Frida … A Self Portrait”. Photo by Corey Weaver / Courtesy of KCRep.

“Frida … A self-portrait”

Live theater returns to The Armory when Portland Center Stage kicks off its 2021-2022 season with a solo show written and performed by Brazilian writer and performer Vanessa Severo, and directed by Joanie Schultz. “Frida… A Self Portrait” begins on the eve of the death of the famous Mexican artist. The intimate story immerses the viewer in the nuanced universe of the extraordinary life of Frida Kahlo.

Open at 7:30 p.m. on Friday, October 15. Continues at various times and dates through November 7, US Bank Main Stage, 128 NW 11th Ave .; tickets from $ 25 to $ 87; pcs.org/frida-a-self-portrait or 503-445-3700.

Shadows of the dancers are seen from above on a checkered background

“Memories of the Future” is one of the films screened as part of the Portland Dance Film Fest.

Portland Dance Film Festival

This year’s Dance Film Festival will be multi-day with online and in-person screenings. The festival features 31 “peaks” and five documentaries from nine countries. In “Déracinés”, the filmmakers celebrate the history, lineage and future of jazz dance. The film addresses the themes of appropriation, racism, socialism and sexism. Special appearances by Debbie Allen, George Faison, Chita Rivera, Camille A. Brown and Thomas F. DeFrantz.

The festival opens at 7:30 p.m. on Friday October 15 and continues on various dates and times through October 24, virtually and at the Clinton Street Theater, 2522 SE Clinton St .; $ 12 per night in advance, $ 15 at the door; virtual offers are $ 5 to $ 30; Portlanddancefilmfest.com.

VSO Young Artists Competition Finals

Nine finalists of the 27th Washington State Vancouver Symphony Orchestra Young Artist Concerto Competition perform live in Vancouver. The event will also be webcast live on the VSO website. Listen to classic works performed by high school students from across the country.

1 p.m. Sunday, October 17, First Presbyterian Church, 4300 Main St., Vancouver; free; vancouversymphony.org

Pauline Garcia Viardot

A Mulieribus celebrates Pauline Garcia-Viardot, one of the most renowned musical figures of 19th century Europe. Garcia-Viardot was born in 1821 into one of the most illustrious singing families in Europe: her father was the Spanish tenor Manuel Garcia and her sister the mezzo-soprano Maria Malibran. An accomplished pianist, Garcia-Viardot plays a duet with Chopin and counts other renowned composers among his friends.

2:30 p.m. Sunday October 17, The Old Church, 1422 SW 11th Ave .; tickets from $ 15 to $ 30; im.ticketleap.com/viardot.

Top 5 A&E

“War of the Worlds” will air on regional radio stations on Monday, October 18, 2021. File photo. The Huntsville Times / Robin ConnHVT

“War of the Worlds”

Ah, Halloween time – when Re-Imagined Radio resurrects the most infamous radio drama of all time. Listen to the dramatized broadcast on the radio waves, as it was meant to be, and travel back in time to 1938 when the original broadcast, produced by and starring Orson Welles, spooked anyone within a distance of listen. This updated version includes a new set of voice actors, new sound effects and soundscapes, and a reworked script.

1 p.m. Monday, October 18, broadcast on Vancouver’s KXRW-FM (99.9 FM), Portland’s KXRY-FM (91.1 FM or 107.1 FM) and KUIK-AM (1360 AM). The episode will also be archived on reimaginedradio.net; free.

Mainly gray duvet

This quilt will be raffled to benefit Bridge The Gap, a Clark County nonprofit that serves the needs of foster and adopted children.Clark County Quilters

Quiltfest Northwest

The annual show centers around the theme of ‘Reflections’ for 2021. See more than 300 quilts created by guild members and attend special exhibitions, a mall, fashion show and other events specials. Registration required for courses; quiltfestnw.org.

10 am-5pm Thursday October 21, 10 am-4pm Friday-Saturday October 22-23, Clark County Event Center, 17402 NE Delfel Road, Ridgefield; admission $ 8, free for children 12 and under; $ 6 parking fee; Quiltfestnw.org

– If you have any live or virtual events that you would like to see highlighted on OregonLive.com or in The Oregonian’s weekly print A&E section, please email your submissions to events@oregonian.com at least three weeks before the start of your event. Digital images or links to videos are helpful.

– Rosemarie Stein, events@oregonian.com


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How Covid-19 Compares to Other Outbreaks – NBC Connecticut https://faaeeantrapologia.com/how-covid-19-compares-to-other-outbreaks-nbc-connecticut/ https://faaeeantrapologia.com/how-covid-19-compares-to-other-outbreaks-nbc-connecticut/#respond Thu, 14 Oct 2021 02:56:07 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/how-covid-19-compares-to-other-outbreaks-nbc-connecticut/ Fight for masks. Opposition to vaccines. You might think we’re talking about life during the Covid-19 pandemic. But it turns out that this is not the first time that these issues have been the subject of heated debate. So what have we learned about previous pandemics, especially how they end? Frank Snowden – Professor Emeritus […]]]>

Fight for masks. Opposition to vaccines.

You might think we’re talking about life during the Covid-19 pandemic.

But it turns out that this is not the first time that these issues have been the subject of heated debate.

So what have we learned about previous pandemics, especially how they end?

Frank Snowden – Professor Emeritus at Yale – has studied epidemic disease for decades and wrote the book “Epidemics and Society: From the Black Death to the Present”.

“I had a pretty grim view that we had had a lot of dress rehearsals and that we were probably going to have another pandemic,” Snowden said.

This pandemic is a little more personal for him.

“I guess to improve my credibility on the streets, I also contracted Covid-19 although I’m very lucky to say I’m a mild case,” Snowden said.

Debates raged on how to deal with pandemics throughout history, including during the 1918 flu.

There have been anti-vaccination efforts.

“Posters have been displayed showing humans growing horns or tails and hooves,” Snowden said, explaining opposition to the smallpox vaccine at the time it was invented.

And there has been a decline in public health measures.

“Business interests didn’t like blockages and they set up an anti-masking league,” Snowden said.

This pandemic has big differences from others, including how much Covid-19 has changed so much in our world.

In fact, Snowden says the Spanish flu that has killed up to 50 million people or more is sometimes called the forgotten pandemic.

“Partly because it was lived through the days of World War I and people were focusing on it,” Snowden said.

Despite the sheer number of flu deaths, Snowden said she had little influence on things like art, culture or public policy in the long term.

Some previous pandemics ended after the virus was eradicated, although others continued. Snowden noted that in history only smallpox and polio have come close to being eradicated by human behavior.

And despite our scientific advances, it has been difficult to follow the Covid-19 and its mutations.

“What it looks like is that this disease is going to be with us as an endemic disease for the foreseeable future,” Snowden said.

Snowden believes the virus’ biggest impact on people and society will be felt for some time, including on mental health.

And the lessons of the past that seem hard to draw are that tackling a pandemic requires investments in public health and a unified response, especially now with vaccines.

“We are all in the same boat in this pandemic that no country is safe until the whole world is safe,” Snowden said.


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Who owns the inheritance, anyway? https://faaeeantrapologia.com/who-owns-the-inheritance-anyway/ https://faaeeantrapologia.com/who-owns-the-inheritance-anyway/#respond Thu, 14 Oct 2021 00:22:30 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/who-owns-the-inheritance-anyway/ Despite being an African American born into poverty in 1931 in rural Texas, picking cotton as a young boy alongside his single mother, Alvin Ailey has lived a life of artistic genius as a dancer. and choreographer and has achieved phenomenal and revolutionary success. By the 1970s, his New York-based Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater […]]]>

Despite being an African American born into poverty in 1931 in rural Texas, picking cotton as a young boy alongside his single mother, Alvin Ailey has lived a life of artistic genius as a dancer. and choreographer and has achieved phenomenal and revolutionary success. By the 1970s, his New York-based Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater and Ailey School were internationally recognized and appreciated. He remains a beacon for emerging black talent – talent that was largely ignored by mainstream institutions during Ailey’s lifetime.

Alvin Ailey was an exciting dancer and budding choreographer in the 1950s. (Photo courtesy of Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater)

But, like the sensitive and clever documentary by Jamila Wignot, Ailey, reveals, his rise to fame in the dance world came with a lot of personal turmoil. Ailey was gay and largely closed off, having no lasting relationship. He suffered a nervous breakdown in 1980 from alcohol and cocaine abuse and what was then called manic depression. He died of AIDS in 1989 at the age of 58, a year after receiving the Kennedy Center Honor for his lifelong contribution to American culture.

Ailey had moved with his mother to Los Angeles in the early 1940s, and it was in California that he was drawn to dance and eventually devoted himself to it professionally. Moving to New York City in the 1950s, he developed his own style of choreography, true to his African-American roots, and formed his own company in 1958. Through classic and visionary works, such as Blue Suite, Revelations, and River – and incessant tours, he made the company a powerhouse of modern dance with a vast repertoire.

Ailey (available to stream via watersedgecinema.org) intersperses the company’s current rehearsals at its sparkling new Manhattan headquarters with archival footage and captivating testimonials from Ailey’s colleague Bill T. Jones and his muse and successor Judith Jamison, among others.

There is an earthly dream at Ailey that suits his subject. Likewise, there is enormous seriousness in Mohamed Ali, Ken Burns, Sarah Burns and David McMahon’s four-part 7.5-hour PBS documentary portrait of the heavyweight boxing champion, a treatment he richly deserved. (The series is available on request via cable and at pbs.org.)

Although Ali, the self-proclaimed “greatest”, was known as much as a showman and celebrity as for his athletic skills and achievements, he was also a political and inspiring hero – a hero who was even more plagued by racism than he was. was his. African-American ancestor Saintlier, Jackie Robinson.

Heavyweight champion Muhammad Ali is seen here training in London. (Photo courtesy of the BBC)

Instead of being recognized for his genius, he was looked down upon as a quick-talking trickster. His self-awareness was seen as selfishness. His adherence to the Nation of Islam and his religious refusal to serve in the army in Vietnam were seen as corrupt and hypocritical, and not as principled and revolutionary choices of which he accepted all the personal and legal consequences. Overall, the contempt he endured had more than anything to do with being a black success story.

Ken Burns and his team conduct exhaustive research into Ali’s life, from his early years in Louisville, Ky., As Cassius Clay, through his historic and spectacular fights, to his old age and debility. due to Parkinson’s disease. The imagery and storytelling (by Keith David) is dramatic and unwavering, not neglecting bad behavior – Ali’s feminization, his dehumanizing treatment of Joe Frazier, his flippant rejection of Malcolm X – but without dwelling on it either. .

Ali’s unlimited and permanent charisma shines through, as does his essential clarity.

Burns’ attempts to right America’s wrongs, especially in racing (in his series Baseball and Jazz, for example), give meaning to his work. This becomes especially clear in comparison to other well-documented historical documentaries, such as Citizen of Hearst, a special two-part, 220-minute presentation of PBS American experience (available on demand and to stream at pbs.org) which covers the life and legacy of media mogul William Randolph Hearst.

It’s not that Citizen of Hearst does not recognize the outrageous practices that Hearst invented or perfected. They are presented in great detail, with the on-screen participation of his heirs.

William Randolph Hearst was a pioneer of yellow journalism and the modern media empire.

WR, or Will, as he was called in his youth, was the only child of George Hearst, a fabulously wealthy Western mining baron. After his expulsion from Harvard, the young Hearst became interested in the newspaper business, ultimately transforming the New York Newspaper in journalism’s first yellow rag, beating Joseph Pulitzer at his own game and single-handedly forcing the United States into the Spanish-American War by falsely reporting a deadly explosion on the USS Maine as sabotage. The war was a totally unnecessary Imperial escapade, but it launched Hearst into the media stratosphere.

He had no problem fabricating facts, and although he ran for office as a Democratic politician on populist platforms, he was brutally anti-union, viciously racist and xenophobic, an early supporter of Hitler and a great supporter of the confinement of Americans of Japanese origin in internment camps. during the Second World War.

He bought himself a vast media conglomerate – the first of its kind – gobbling up dozens of newspapers, launching magazines, creating a Hollywood studio, and shooting and distributing newsreels. He lived with his mistress, actress Marion Davies, and built her a castle on the Pacific in San Simeon, California. All of this was satirized in Orson Welles’ classic 1941 film, Citizen Kane, and, as a result, the Hearst Empire avoided the film and helped destroy Welles’ career.

What Citizen of Hearst does not, as Ken Burns certainly would, is to provide viewers with a moral compass. The contemporary parallels with Murdoch and Trump are obvious and unsaid. Instead of focusing on Hearst’s life as a nihilistic and narcissistic exercise, the documentary “balances” its destructive character with a tribute to his risk-taking and empire-building as a businessman. And that is, to use the current jargon, not OK.


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Woman Vallejo turns 101 – Times-Herald https://faaeeantrapologia.com/woman-vallejo-turns-101-times-herald/ https://faaeeantrapologia.com/woman-vallejo-turns-101-times-herald/#respond Wed, 13 Oct 2021 22:18:44 +0000 https://faaeeantrapologia.com/woman-vallejo-turns-101-times-herald/ On the wall is a framed photo of Evelyn “Lynn” Milas, 21, in her US Marine Corps uniform. Eager, smiling behind his blue eyes, and ready to tackle WWII missions that include repairing bullet holes in aircraft fuselages. A few meters – and 80 years old – away, Milas sits confined to a wheelchair, holding […]]]>

On the wall is a framed photo of Evelyn “Lynn” Milas, 21, in her US Marine Corps uniform. Eager, smiling behind his blue eyes, and ready to tackle WWII missions that include repairing bullet holes in aircraft fuselages.

A few meters – and 80 years old – away, Milas sits confined to a wheelchair, holding a string attached to an alarm.

“I was young at one point,” says Milas. “It didn’t last long.”

Passing the milestone of the century and reaching 101 on Thursday is pretty much another reminder that Milas is old.

“I know. Tell me about that,” she said, dealing with a smile she often shared in a 40-minute interview on Wednesday.

Sitting by the TV – The “Andy Griffith Show” is a favorite – Milas shook the memory banks the best she could from her comfortable one-bedroom apartment at The Lodge at Glen Cove in Vallejo.

Yes, Milas confirmed, she was born on October 14, 1920 in New York City, “just under the Brooklyn Bridge.”

“I don’t know how I got so old,” she says.

Milas’ mother managed to live until the mid-90s, but her father “got by pretty fast” into his sixties.

“He had a difficult life. Raising three daughters and living with my mom, I’m sure it wasn’t easy, ”Milas said.

In fact, “My mom was a gem,” Milas said. “She couldn’t do anything wrong. She did everything to keep things together. She was one of eight children. She has had a difficult life.

Milas was asked about her childhood, a childhood that narrowly escaped the wrath of the 1918-1920 Spanish flu pandemic that ended six months before her birth.

“Oh my God, my childhood. It’s going to take a lot of thought, ”she said. “It has been a long time.”

Milas remembered the family home and the front yard. Two bedrooms only.

“My parents had the master bedroom, of course. My older sister, she had the single room, ”Milas said. “She was working and increasing the family income. They (her parents) thought they owed her a separate room. My younger sister and I, I remember, always lived in the living room. There was a sofa bed. It was our room. I remember it the most. I never had a room of my own. As a child, I shared a room with my sister.

And when Milas happily joined the Marine Corps, “what are they doing? They gave me a room with 96 other women all lined up in bunk beds. I had an upper bunk.

Milas quickly married her husband, Forrest, “So I shared a room with him. I never had a room on my own. It is my best and worst memory.

Milas said she enjoyed her military experience.

“It was a very strange time. The war had broken out and the women could come into service and I said, “I’ll go. It sounded adventurous, something new and something to do, ”Milas said. “Before that, I was sent to an office to do paperwork. I wanted something more exciting. When I heard they were asking for women on Mare Island, I said I would go.

There has never been a training camp, Milas said.

“They were like, ‘OK, it’s your job, do it.’ I was 21… 22 years old. I repaired planes, I worked on engines, I repaired bullet holes in the fuselage and we warmed the planes in the morning.

Yes, she warmed up the planes.

“Back then when you wanted to drive your car you had to go out and turn on the engine and it would warm up. The same with airplanes, ”Milas said. “It was a one-seater plane and the pilots were getting ready for their orders and you were heating the plane up. And when it had warmed up, we would go out and they would come in and take off to the Pacific because that’s where most of the fighting was. I enjoyed working on airplanes. It was a big job. It was nice to know that we have done something for our country.

When the war ended, “we were happy to come home, of course. I hadn’t been home for three years, ”Milas said.

She ended up in Vallejo after meeting her husband at Top of the Mark in San Francisco.

“I remember it very well,” she said.

Forrest Milas was an underwater navigator and he and Lynn had been married for 70 years.

“He liked it, being a submariner,” she said. “We used to go on trips whenever he was home, but he was gone a lot more than me. People would ask him how he had managed to keep his marriage for so long and he would say to them: “I have been to sea often. He was right. We have moved every two years to a new base. Spain for a while. We lived in Alaska, Hawaii. Almost everywhere in the United States. We have moved. “

Milas said her two sons had opposing views on their own childhood.

“A son told me how much he loved moving and the youngest said he was unhappy because we were moving all the time and he never had time to make friends,” said Milas.

While her son Kevin Milas, 65, is in Virginia, Paul Milas, 73, throws Lynn’s 101st birthday parties – a Friday afternoon and a Saturday.

It’s bound to be more festive than the 100, Lynn said.

“It wasn’t really a big event,” she said. “I celebrated with the family and didn’t give a damn about it.”

Honestly, Milas said, she thought “very little” about her 101 years.

“Getting older isn’t fun,” she says. “There are so many things you cannot do. I can’t walk because I had a broken hip. I was a hiker. I really enjoyed hiking in the hills. Now I can’t do this anymore. There are a lot of things you cannot do.

And fall? She has had her share. Growing old, she admitted, is not for the faint hearted.

“Every place on my body has a black and blue mark,” Milas said, adding that her eyesight “is not very good”. As for the audience, “It’s decreasing. Everything collapses.

Memories have reached a second speed. Living through many presidents, “I’ve always loved Reagan,” she said. “He was a favorite of mine. He was a good soldier.

And the crumb cake. It’s his favorite food.

Back to that 101 thing. How did you take care of yourself?

“I didn’t take care of myself,” she smiles.

The secret to reaching 101?

“There is no secret to being old,” she said. “You just got old. I don’t remember wanting to get old. It’s a surprise to me.

There was a time when Milas thought 75 was old.

“That was a long time ago,” she said, realizing, “I have no complaints. I’ve had a great life. I’m happy with everything that has happened. a good family and they have supported me all the way.

Today’s world worries him.

“There are a lot of things I think about when I listen to the news,” Milas said. “There are things that have happened that shouldn’t be. “

The threat of war – somewhere – is always worrying, she said.

“They are still talking about it,” Milas said.

It’s time to end the chat. Milas thinks of her two birthdays while she waits and that photo on the wall.

“If you had told me at the time, I would live to be 101, I probably never would have believed it,” she said.

What if we asked him to blow out 101 candles on a birthday cake?

“I don’t think I can do that. In fact, I know I couldn’t do that, ”she said.

A candle ?

“Maybe I could get that in,” she smirked.

Somehow, in 101 years at least Milas has never been arrested.

“They never caught me,” she said.


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